The Achilles tendon is the combination of tendons of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles and connects these muscles to the back of the heel. Insertional Achilles tendinopathy (IAT) is a painful acute or chronic disorder of the Achilles tendon at its insertion onto the calcaneus. Several terms have been used to describe this condition including tendinosis, tendinitis and peritendinitis.
However, histologic examination of biopsy specimens from patients undergoing surgery for chronic symptoms has shown that chronic IAT is associated with degenerative changes in the tendon. Accordingly, the disease is better characterized as tendinopathy than tendinitis or tendinosis.
Diagnosis is based on the clinical features of the disease, with the location of the pain as an important discriminating factor. The spot of maximum pain in IAT is located at the tendon-bone junction, whereas in the case of noninsertional Achilles tendinopathy, the spot of maximum pain is 2 to 6 cm proximal to the insertion. Symptoms can be exacerbated by running on hard surfaces and climbing stairs. Diagnostic imaging should be considered to rule out other causes of Achilles tendon pain and heel pain, or to establish the diagnosis of IAT when in doubt.
The etiology of IAT is likely multifactorial and may include advanced age, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, hyperpronation and steroid use, to mention only a few. Particularly in athletes the onset of IAT may also be influenced by poor training habits including excessive training, training on hard or sloping surfaces, and abrupt changes in scheduling.
It has been hypothesized that healing of injuries of the Achilles tendon as a result of overuse involves the penetration of small blood vessels into the tendon in order to increase healing by providing improved blood flow. However, these small blood vessels are accompanied by small nerve fibers with high concentrations of nociceptive substances including glutamate, substance P, and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). These small nerve fibers are considered the cause of pain in chronic IAT.
Runners comprise the largest group of patients with chronic pain in the Achilles tendon. The annual incidence of IAT among athletes is approximately 8%. However, individuals of all activity levels and all ages present with similar complaints.
The treatment of IAT should start with conservative treatment modalities including rest, icing, physiotherapy, stretching (eccentric loading), exercises, orthoses, heel lifts and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In certain cases, braces and immobilization with a cast or a pneumatic walking boot may improve the situation. Patients not responding to conservative treatment for six months shall then undergo radial shock wave therapy (RSWT). Surgery should be considered for recalcitrant cases of IAS, with different surgical strategies described in the literature. Prevention of recurrence should focus on appropriate exercise habits, wearing low-heeled shoes and eccentric strengthening exercises.
Locate the area of pain through palpation and biofeedback.
Mark the area of pain.
3. APPLY GEL
Apply coupling gel to transmit shock waves to the tissue.
4. APPLY SHOCK WAVES
Deliver Radial or Focused Shock Waves to the area of pain while keeping the applicator firmly in place on the skin.
|Number of treatment sessions||3 to 5||3 to 5|
|Interval between two sessions||1 week||1 week|
|Air pressure Evo Blue®||2 to 4 bar||3 to 4 bar|
|Air pressure Power+||1.5 to 3 bar||2 to 4 bar|
|Impulses||2000 on the painful spot||2000|
|Frequency||8Hz to 12Hz||12Hz to 20Hz|
|Skin pressure||Moderate 3 sides of the tendon||Moderate to Heavy|
Rompe JD, Nafe B, Furia JP, Maffulli N
Eccentric loading, shock-wave treatment, or a wait-and-see policy for tendinopathy of the main body of tendo Achillis: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Sports Med 2007;35:374-383
Rompe JD, Furia JP, Maffulli N
Eccentric loading, compared with shock wave treatment for chronic insertional Achilles tendinopathy: A randomized controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2008;90:52-61
Rompe JD, Furia JP, Maffulli N
Eccentric loading, versus eccentric loading plus shock-wave treatment for midportion Achilles tendinopathy: A randomized controlled trial. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2009;37:463-470
Side effects of Radial Shock Wave Therapy (RSWT®) using the Swiss DolorClast®
When performed properly, RSWT® with the Swiss DolorClast® has only minimal risks.
Typical device-related nonserious adverse events are:
- Pain and discomfort during and after treatment (anesthesia is not necessary)
- Reddening of the skin
- Swelling and numbness of the skin over the treatment area
These device-related nonserious adverse events usually disappear within 36h after the treatment.
Accordingly the following contraindications of RSWT® using the Swiss DolorClast® must be considered:
- Treatment over air-filled tissue (lung, gut)
- Treatment of pre-ruptured tendons
- Treatment of pregnant women
- Treatment of patients under the age of 18 years (except for Osgood-Schlatter disease and muscular dysfunction in children with spastic movement disorders)
- Treatment of patients with blood-clotting disorders (including local thrombosis)
- Treatment of patients treated with oral anticoagulations
- Treatment of tissue with local tumors or local bacterial and/or viral infections
- Treatment of patients treated with cortisone